By Valentina David

Contracts in sports are no different than contracts in everyday life. Professional athletes are compensated for their services with a paycheck just like anyone else, and therefore scrutiny of the terms and conditions within a contract is necessary.

Negotiating and drafting sports contracts is important for athletes, as it is one of the primary mechanisms to protect their financial interests. Athletes have limited earning potential due to their comparatively short-lived careers and therefore must ensure they are paid a fair wage for their services. Negotiating a contract with an experienced solicitor’s help can ensure that athletes are compensated fairly and that their financial interests are protected.

In addition to protecting an athlete’s financial interests, sports contracts can protect their physical well-being. Many sports contracts include clauses that outline the athlete’s responsibilities regarding their physical health and safety. For example, a contract may require an athlete to undergo regular medical examinations to ensure that they are healthy and able to perform at their best. This can help prevent injuries and ensure that the athlete is not putting their health at risk.

Sports Agents and Contracts

Sports agents serve a valuable role in terms of securing and negotiating contracts for the professional athlete. Lawyers who represent athletes have generally been trained in the fundamentals of contracts and should be familiar with the current market value of their client relative to other athletes within the same sport. 

However, it should be noted that hiring a lawyer is not required, nor is an agent for that matter, to secure deals for the athlete. Some athletes do not wish to hire an agent for a variety of reasons, including having to pay commissions or other fees associated with the representation. 

General Contract Law Principles

A contract is a legally binding agreement. A proper contract is one which sets out the parties’ clear and mutual understanding regarding a certain issue or subject. The purpose of the contract is to make clear the rights and obligations of both parties, that is, what each party must do to fulfill the contract, and what each party is entitled to in return. If the terms of the contract are not written clearly, are open to ambiguity, or are incomplete, disputes can arise – and often do.

There six elements that are necessary to a binding and enforceable contract

OfferThe first essential element encompasses the duties and responsibilities of each party but must also demonstrate an exchange of value. That value can be money, or it can relate to a desired action or outcome.
AcceptanceOnce the offer is presented, it can either be accepted or rejected – Acceptance must be explicit.
AwarenessBoth parties must first be aware that they are entering into an agreement. Often called “a meeting of the minds,” both parties to a contract must be active participants. They must recognize the contract exists and are freely agreeing to be bound by that document’s obligations.
ConsiderationSomething of value that is exchanged between the parties to a contract.
CapacityRequires that all signatories demonstrate that they clearly understand the obligations, terms, and consequences of the contract before they sign.
LegalityAll contracts are subject to the laws of the jurisdiction in which they operate, including any applicable federal, state, and local laws and ordinances.

Professional Fighter Contracts

Becoming a professional fighter is a dream for many athletes who are passionate about martial arts or combat sports. However, before stepping into the ring or cage, it is essential for fighters to understand a critical aspect of their careers, namely contracts. These legal agreements are the backbone of a fighter’s professional journey, governing their relationships with promoters, managers, and other stakeholders. Understanding these contracts can help athletes navigate this complex terrain and make informed decisions for a successful career, because in the “fight game,” every advantage counts.

The Basics of Fighter Contracts

A fighter contract is a legally binding agreement between the fighter and a promoter or organization. These contracts outline the terms and conditions under which the athlete agrees to compete and receive compensation for their fights. 

Key components of a fighter contract include:

This section specifies the fighter’s responsibilities, such as training, making weight for fights, completing applications for licenses, handling medical requirements, and adhering to the organization’s code of conduct.

Here, the promoter outlines what they will provide, including fight opportunities, publicity, and compensation details.

This section will cover the fighter’s purse (base pay) for each fight, as well as any potential bonuses for exceptional performance or fight of the night honors.

The contract should state the number of fights the athlete is expected to have within a certain period or “term.”

Fighters need to be aware of any clauses related to the use of their image, name, and likeness for promotional purposes.

Two important aspects to consider are the Insurance and Exit clauses. As fighters, it is crucial to have a medical insurance policy which covers injuries sustained by fighters during sanctioned fights or official events. This can be included as part of the promoter or agency’s obligation, or the responsibility can fall on the athlete entirely. 

Exit or termination clauses allow parties to terminate or end an agreement without breaching the contract. It looks at each party’s right to terminate in certain circumstances. Termination of contract typically include the following components:

Force majeure

Force majeure is a termination clause that relieves a party from performing their contractual duties if performance is extremely difficult or impossible due to an event that the parties could not reasonably anticipate or control. Such events include war, prolonged shortages of energy supplies, lockdowns, and “Acts of God” like earthquakes, pandemics, and typhoons.

Understanding Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Contracts

Fighter contracts can be either exclusive or non-exclusive. An exclusive contract means the fighter can only compete for the organization they’ve signed with, while a non-exclusive contract allows them to compete elsewhere. Understanding the implications of these contract types is necessary for a fighter’s career strategy.

Negotiating Your Contract

Negotiating a fighter contract is a vital skill, especially for athletes entering the professional scene. Here are some tips for successful negotiations:

  1. Know Your Worth: Research the average pay for fighters in your weight class and skill level to have a realistic baseline for negotiations.
  2. Seek Legal Advice: Consulting with a sports attorney experienced in fighter contracts can ensure you understand the terms and conditions fully.
  3. Term Length: Consider the contract’s duration; longer terms may offer more security but could limit opportunities for higher pay if your skills improve rapidly. Note, however, that many promoters retain the right to terminate a fighter contract at any time, regardless of the length of the term.

Beware Of Common Pitfalls

There may be unfair provisions within a contract such as:

Watch out for contract clauses that heavily favor the promoter or organization and limit your options, like the promoter’s right to terminate as mentioned above.

Ensure there are no hidden costs or purse deductions, such as training expenses or promotional fees, which might affect your earnings.

Check for a fighter release clause that allows you to part ways with the fight organization under reasonable circumstances.

These pitfalls are common, and fighters can find themselves obligated to forfeit money or opportunities if their contract is not carefully reviewed prior to signing.


Aspiring and professional fighters must understand the intricacies of these legal agreements to safeguard their interests and maximize their potential. By understanding the basics, negotiating wisely, and staying vigilant, athletes can set themselves on a path to a rewarding and prosperous career in the world of combat sports. With that said, many athletes wisely hire counsel to handle contract negotiations so they can focus on family, training, sleep and recovery, and nutrition.

A word of advice to those about to enter into contracts: sort out any concerns before the contract is to be signed. Brainstorm about the possible outcomes that could unfold under the terms of the contract, and make sure the contract provides guidance on how these situations will be dealt with. If you feel you have no bargaining clout, and at times you do not, at least make it formally known that you have some reservations about certain terms of the contract. Without this, you are in no position to complain later on.

Aspiring and professional fighters must understand the intricacies of these legal agreements to safeguard their interests and maximize their potential. By understanding the basics, negotiating wisely, and staying vigilant, athletes can set themselves on a path to a rewarding and prosperous career in the world of combat sports.

DISCLAIMER: This article is not intended in any manner or form to be legal advice and merely an introductory article to create awareness of the need to be legally protected. “When engaging in a contract it is advised to seek independent legal advice for such contractual relationships.”